Starting & Proxying processes#

Jupyter Server Proxy can start & supervise the process providing the web service it is proxying. The process is started the first time an appropriate URL is requested, and restarted if it fails.

Processes that are supervised and proxied are called servers. They can be configured either in the notebook configuration, or as separate packages.

Server Process options#

Server Processes are configured with a dictionary of key value pairs.


One of:

  • A list of strings that is the command used to start the process. The following template strings will be replaced:

    • {port} the port that the process should listen on. This will be 0 if it should use a Unix socket instead.

    • {unix_socket} the path at which the process should listen on a Unix socket. This will be an empty string if it should use a TCP port.

    • {base_url} the base URL of the notebook. For example, if the application needs to know its full path it can be constructed from {base_url}/proxy/{port}

  • A callable that takes any callable arguments, and returns a list of strings that are used & treated same as above.

If the command is not specified or is an empty list, the server process is assumed to be started ahead of time and already available to be proxied to.


Timeout in seconds for the process to become ready, default 5.

A process is considered ‘ready’ when it can return a valid HTTP response on the port it is supposed to start at.


One of:

  • A dictionary of strings that are passed in as the environment to the started process, in addition to the environment of the notebook process itself. The strings {port}, {unix_socket} and {base_url} will be replaced as for command.

  • A callable that takes any callable arguments, and returns a dictionary of strings that are used & treated same as above.


True if the URL as seen by the proxied application should be the full URL sent by the user. False if the URL as seen by the proxied application should see the URL after the parts specific to jupyter-server-proxy have been stripped.

For example, with the following config:

c.ServerProxy.servers = {
    "test-server": {
        "command": ["python3", "-m", "http.server", "{port}"],
        "absolute_url": False

When a user requests /test-server/some-url, the proxied server will see it as a request for /some-url - the /test-server part is stripped out.

If absolute_url is set to True instead, the proxied server will see it as a request for /test-server/some-url instead - without any stripping.

This is very useful with applications that require a base_url to be set.

Defaults to False.


Set the port that the service will listen on. The default is to automatically select an unused port.


This option uses a Unix socket on a filesystem path, instead of a TCP port. It can be passed as a string specifying the socket path, or True for Jupyter Server Proxy to create a temporary directory to hold the socket, ensuring that only the user running Jupyter can connect to it.

If this is used, the {unix_socket} argument in the command template (see command) will be a filesystem path. The server should create a Unix socket bound to this path and listen for HTTP requests on it. The port configuration key will be ignored.


Proxying websockets over a Unix socket requires Tornado >= 6.3.


Map request paths to proxied paths. Either a dictionary of request paths to proxied paths, or a callable that takes parameter path and returns the proxied path.


A dictionary with options on if / how an entry in the classic Jupyter Notebook ‘New’ dropdown or the JupyterLab launcher should be added. It can contain the following keys:

  1. enabled Set to True (default) to make an entry in the launchers. Set to False to have no explicit entry.

  2. icon_path Full path to an svg icon that could be used with a launcher. Currently only used by the JupyterLab launcher, when category is “Notebook” (default) or “Console”.

  3. title Title to be used for the launcher entry. Defaults to the name of the server if missing.

  4. path_info The trailing path that is appended to the user’s server URL to access the proxied server. By default it is the name of the server followed by a trailing slash.

  5. category The category for the launcher item. Currently only used by the JupyterLab launcher. By default it is “Notebook”.


JupyterLab only - True (default) if the proxied server URL should be opened in a new browser tab. False if the proxied server URL should be opened in a new JupyterLab tab.

If False, the proxied server needs to allow its pages to be rendered in an iframe. This is generally done by configuring the web server X-Frame-Options to SAMEORIGIN. For more information, refer to MDN Web docs on X-Frame-Options.

Note that applications might use a different terminology to refer to frame options. For example, RStudio uses the term frame origin and require the flag --www-frame-origin=same to allow rendering of its pages in an iframe.


One of:

  • A dictionary of strings that are passed in as HTTP headers to the proxy request. The strings {port} and {base_url} will be replaced as for command.

  • A callable that takes any callable arguments, and returns a dictionary of strings that are used & treated same as above.


Whether to report activity from the proxy to Jupyter Server. If True, Jupyter Server will be notified of new activity. This is primarily used by JupyterHub for idle detection and culling.

Useful if you want to have a seperate way of determining activity through a proxied application.

Defaults to True.

Callable arguments#

Any time you specify a callable in the config, it can ask for any arguments it needs by simply declaring it - only arguments the callable asks for will be passed to it.

For example, with the following config:

def _cmd_callback():
    return ["some-command"]

server_config = {
    "command": _cmd_callback

No arguments will be passed to _cmd_callback, since it doesn’t ask for any. However, with:

def _cmd_callback(port):
    return ["some-command", "--port=" + str(port)]

server_config = {
    "command": _cmd_callback

The port argument will be passed to the callable. This is a simple form of dependency injection that helps us add more parameters in the future without breaking backwards compatibility.

Available arguments#

Currently, the following arguments are available:

  1. port The port the command should listen on

  2. base_url The base URL of the notebook

If any of the returned strings, lists or dictionaries contain strings of form {<argument-name>}, they will be replaced with the value of the argument. For example, if your function is:

def _openrefine_cmd():
    return ["openrefine", "-p", "{port}"]

The {port} will be replaced with the appropriate port before the command is started

Specifying config via traitlets#

Traitlets are the configuration mechanism used by Jupyter Notebook. It can take config in Python and we can use that to specify Server Processes - including functions if we want tighter control over what process is spawned.

  1. Create a file called in one of the Jupyter config directories. You can get a list of these directories by running jupyter --paths and looking under the ‘config’ section

  2. Add your Server Process configuration there by setting c.ServerProxy.servers traitlet.

    For example,

    c.ServerProxy.servers = {
       "openrefine": {
           "command": ["refine", "-p", "{port}"]

    This will start OpenRefine with the refine command (which must be in $PATH) on a randomly generated port, and make it available under /openrefine in your notebook url. The URL path is specified by the key, but this should be made more configurable in the future.

Specifying config from python packages#

It is often convenient to provide the Server Process configuration as a python package, so users can simply pip install it. This is possible, thanks to the magic of entrypoints.

We’ll work through it by repeating the OpenRefine example from above.

  1. Create a python file named

    def setup_openrefine():
       return {
           "command": ["refine", "-p", "{port}"]

    A simple function that returns a Server Process configuration dictionary when called. This can return any kind of Server Process configuration dictionary, and include functions easily.

  2. Make an appropriate

    import setuptools
       # py_modules rather than packages, since we only have 1 file
           "jupyter_serverproxy_servers": [
               # name = packagename:function_name
               "openrefine = openrefine:setup_openrefine",

    We make an entry for the jupyter_serverproxy_servers entrypoint. When jupyter-server-proxy starts up, it goes through the list of entrypoint entries from all installed packages & sets itself up with all the Server Process configurations.

  3. You can now test this out with pip install ., making sure you are in the same environment as the jupyter notebook process. If you go to <notebook-url>/openrefine (and have OpenRefine installed and in $PATH!), you should see an instance of OpenRefine!